Origins & Science
- Philosophy of Science (2) : History and Method
In recent years, as our deepening understanding of the delicate complexity of the universe continues unabated, Naturalists are increasingly turning to "multiverse" hypotheses to blunt or dodge the force of fine-tuning and teleological arguments for the existence of a Designer. Roughly, the idea is that, parallel to the universe we inhabit, there exists an infinite series of universes, each of which is different from our own in at least one respect. In the multiverse, every contingent possibility is instantiated in at least one universe. If it helps, the concept has been used for dramatic effect on the TV show, Sliders, and in The Hitchhikers Guide to the Galaxy. The multiverse is thought to undercut design arguments because while it is wildly improbable that our life-supporting universe should exist if there was only one shot at it, it is inevitable that our universe exist if every possible universe exists. (Yes, it begs the question of the necessary conditions for this meta-universe, but we'll leave that to the side.) There are mixed feelings about the multiverse hypothesis amongst skeptics and Naturalists. While it may be a stopgap against the implications of our apparently designed universe, it is an inescapably ironic move for the Naturalist to postulate a deus ex machina that is unobserved and, in principle, unobservable.
For any of you nostalgic for your days sparring for your high-school debate team, here's a spirited argument of the point-counterpoint variety that is sure to please. A while back Jonathan Wells, author of The Icons of Evolution, shot off the salvo, "Ten Questions to Ask Your Biology Teacher about Evolution". The National Center for Science Education has offered its own defense in lieu of your own local "high school biology professor". And now, to counter that counterpunch, Wells has written "Inherit the Spin" wherein he countenances each of the NCSE's answers and finds them unsatisfying. With this most recent contribution Wells has elevated the debate considerably and one hopes that the NCSE will return for round four.
The Methodological Equivalence of Design & Descent," on explanation, and Dembski's "The Explanatory Filter," on her God of the gaps concern. Since the concerns Matsumura raises have been so thoroughly discussed by the Intelligent Design movement, it is hard not to wonder why she exhibits no familiarity with their proposed solutions. David Kornreich's, "Why Creationism is not a Science," (link expired) seems equally oblivious to these discussions. Behe's Empty Box, on the other hand, is a glimpse of the possible dialogue prompted by taking Intelligent Design theorists' criticisms seriously.