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Inductive Fallacies

Inductive reasoning moves from the specific to the general. Beginning with the evidence of specific facts, observations, or experiences, it moves to a general conclusion. Inductive conclusions are considered either reliable or unreliable instead of true or false. An inductive conclusion indicates probability, the degree to which the conclusion is likely to be true. Inductive reasoning is based on a sampling of facts. An inductive conclusion is held to be reliable or unreliable in relation to the quantity and the quality of the evidence supporting it. Induction leads to new truths and can support statements about the unknown on the basis of what is known.” (Wilson, Forensic Procedures for Boundary and Title Investigation, p. 51.)

Fallacy of Exclusion and Suppressed Evidence

Evidence which would change the outcome of an inductive argument is excluded from consideration.

False and Imperfect Analogies

The two objects or events being compared are relevantly dissimilar.

Hasty Generalization and Secundum Quid

The sample is too small to support an inductive generalization about a population.

Slothful Induction and Ad Hoc Escapism

The conclusion of an inductive argument is denied despite strong evidence.

Unrepresentative Sample

The sample is unrepresentative of the sample as a whole.