Consider all. Test All. Hold on to the good.

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Changing the Subject

The fallacies in this section change the subject by discussing the person making the argument instead of discussing reasons to believe or disbelieve the conclusion.

Ad Hominem

The person presenting an argument is attacked instead of the argument itself.

Anonymous Authorities

The authority in question is not named.

Appeal to Authority

1) The authority is not an expert in the field; 2) experts in the field disagree; 3) the authority wasn’t speaking in earnest; 4) or, the authority is misrepresented.

Style Over Substance

The manner in which an argument (or arguer) is presented is felt to affect the truth of the conclusion.