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Emphasis is used to suggest a meaning different from the actual content of the proposition.

  1. It would be illegal to give away Free Beer!
  2. The first mate, seeking revenge on the captain, wrote in his journal, "The Captain was sober today." (He suggests, by his emphasis, that the Captain is usually drunk. From Copi, p. 117)
Identify the ambiguous phrase and show the two possible interpretations.

About Stephen Downes

Many kudos are owed to Stephen Downes, the logician who originally authored this list of fallacies and made it freely available on the Web. His basic structure remains. A mirror of Downes' original site can be found here.