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Michael Ruse on Morality as a Biological Adaptation

“Evolutionary Theory and Christian Ethics,” in The Darwinian Paradigm (Routledge: 1989), pp. 262, 268-269.

The position of the modern evolutionist, therefore, is that humans have an awareness of morality – a sense of right and wrong and a feeling of obligation to be thus governed because such an awareness is of biological worth. Morality is a biological adaptation no less than are hands and feet and teeth (Mackie 1978, Murphy 1982, Ruse and Wilson 1985).